Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75, years ago,  pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work. Control of fire by early humans The discovery and utilization of firea simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.
They disrespect their elders, they disobey their parents. They ignore the law. They riot in the streets inflamed with wild notions.
Their morals are decaying. What is to become of them? Upon reading this quotation it could be assumed that the speaker is reflecting on the youth of today, however Plato spoke these words during 4BC offering an interesting proposal that adults have always viewed young people with negativity.
Much of the reading undertaken for the purpose of this dissertation offers analysis of the perceived issue of youth, and perhaps some of the influencing factors which seek to explain why society endures such challenges.
Modern day reality television programmes offer an insight into reality but appear to showcase distortions and exaggerated preconceived ideas about the mysteries of youth. The subject of young people and juvenile deviance is explored in limitless volumes, and journals, which offer comprehensive insight into the theoretical narratives and academic perspectives of young people, and their behaviour, including perceived offending behaviour.
Society seemingly keeps a watchful eye on its young people and reports on how they behave but society's watchdog offering this reflection, namely the media, offers coverage of young people which appears to have a negative bias which creates a false reality in the eyes of those who might be susceptible to fear young people, hence the divide between the generations gets wider.
By adopting a thematic approach to this critical analysis it is possible to explore academic analysis throughout the changing Governing policies.
The concept of the demonising youth Furedi, will be examined in the upcoming pages using theoretical and anecdotal offerings through primary research.
A short internet search of the word 'youth' on Google images produces a range of images which demonstrate our prejudices in relation to young people. Snapshots of aggression, youth culture, 'hoodies', 'Chavs', 'Goth', 'Emos', all which seem at odds with people outside the classification youth.
Springhall suggests that it is these images which prejudice the term youth, and that politicians and the media use these to control society, and herd the masses, like sheep, to subscribe to their political ideologies. However, whilst it is a theory which can be understood there are detractors who seek to offer a different perspective.
Clarke suggests 'The 'state' of youth acts as a social metaphor for the state of society' Muncie, therefore arguing that analysis of the contextualisation of the purpose of demonising youth must be sought if this research is to be valid and credible.
Chapter One Literature Review The first task is to examine the concept of youth and childhood, both are social constructs in that relatively recent changes of attitude have introduced the concepts of children.
Empey points out that prior to the industrial revolution and the grip of social conscious of middle class philanthropists, children worked, drank and gambled, as did adults.
The rise of Capitalism brought with it a change of attitude and radically change the workplace, from whole families working in factories or in the field, the introduction of the family wage meant that children were removed from the workplace.
This claims Dingwall is where the issues of childhood first emerged because prior to this childhood did not exist. Cohen makes great work of the juxtaposition between youths as perpetrators or victims of crime; he calls this 'the site of a singular nexus of contradictions' p.
This need to both protect and control young people explain the cyclamate changes to policy which seeks to address issues perceived to be created by young people through Government and the judiciary.
The industrial revolution provided the catalyst for change in Britain but the impact was evidenced in post war Britain with changing policies to meet the needs of society, including what appeared to be a welfarist approach in both social policy and the judiciary.
This came at a time when society was seeing how popular media showcased modern culture and Britain saw 'teddy boys' as differing from the norm.
Prior to that young boys dressed like their fathers, and there appeared to be little distinction in terms of fashion and culture between young people and their adult counterparts. Music, media and fashion appeared to highlight the differences of young people to the rest of society, and perhaps gave way to the idea of 'Folk devils and Moral panics' Cohen, first explored by Stanley Cohen.
Was Cohen the first to highlight the differences in young people? The answer is no, this dissertation opened with a quote from Plato 4BC. Below is a thematic review of the current academic thinking on youth which seeks to explore the perception of young people.
Youth; Real or social construct?
The primary goal for this assignment was to explore the concept of society demonising youth, but what is youth?. After an exhaustive search it is apparent that the idea of childhood and youth is not clear, many of the boundaries between one stage and the next are blurred.
Muncie offers that the generally accepted timeline for youth is adolescence, defined by age from years, but this is the most contentious span of years with many legal restrictions on activity which seemingly offer definitions on age of responsibility without a definitive statement of transition from child to adult.
During this period between 13 and 19 years the law makes clear points of transition between what is legal and not legal but without apparent reasoned thinking. Smoking and sex become legal at 16 years, whilst the consumption of alcohol and voting become legal at 18 years, although sex and smoking are both risk behaviours which are comparative with drinking, it highlights a societal ambiguity about adulthood which means that young people may receive mixed messages about behaviour and age.
Sex has the potential for risk at a greater level both personally and societally than voting but the law has chosen to allow young people defined as children to make decisions about their own sexual behaviours post 16 years.In this essay, I am going to summarize main points of an article written by Norton, Toohey ().
Toohey (). Then I will give my critical reflection based on my teaching experience and pedagogy. and sexual orientation may impact the process of language learning. Because learners’ identities are always multiple and changeable in. Knowing Our Students as Learners.
Such a psychologically safe environment is critical for meaningful learning. Determining Each Student's Readiness. As teachers, we make decisions and judgments daily about the readiness level of our students. Structured Reflection. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Autobiographical reflection can serve as a lens for educators to learn about themselves, explore their assumptions, and engage in the process of critical reflection (Brookfield, ). Understanding the self involves examining a web of experiences that influence our living, teaching, and learning.
Transformational learning that empowers students to be critical and active citizens is the goal of teaching critical reflection as an on-going professional process to social work students in this fourth year unit. Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
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