Part 1 Part 1 Narrator: In the summer ofat docks up and down the eastern seaboard, thousands of American soldiers boarded ships bound for France.
French bayonet charge German infantry on the battlefield, 7 August At the outbreak of the First World War, the German Army, with seven field armies in the west and one in the east, executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Planmoving quickly through neutral Belgium to attack France, and then turning southwards to encircle the French Army and trap it on the German border.
Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank.
Another siege followed at Namur, lasting from about 20—23 August. The application of "collective responsibility" against a civilian population further galvanised the allies. Newspapers condemned the German invasion, violence against civilians and destruction of property, which became known as the " Rape of Belgium ".
A series of engagements known as the Battle of the Frontiers ensued, which included the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. In the former battle the French Fifth Army was almost destroyed by the German 2nd and 3rd Armies and the latter delayed the German advance by a day.
Quentin also called the First Battle of Guise. Following this German retirement, the opposing forces made reciprocal outflanking manoeuvres, known as the Race for the Sea and quickly extended their trench systems from the Swiss frontier to the North Sea.
From the coast in the north, the primary forces were from Belgium, the British Empire and then France. First Battle of Ypres From 19 October until 22 November, the German forces made their final breakthrough attempt of during the First Battle of Ypreswhich ended in a mutually-costly stalemate.
During the Lodz offensive in Poland 11—25 NovemberFalkenhayn hoped that the Russians would be made amenable to peace overtures. In his discussions with Bethmann-Hollweg, Falkenhayn viewed Germany and Russia as having no insoluble conflict and that the real enemies of Germany were France and Britain.
A peace with only a few annexations of territory also seemed possible with France and that with Russia and France out of the war by negotiated settlements, Germany could concentrate on Britain and fight a long war with the resources of Europe at its disposal.
Hindenburg and Ludendorff continued to believe that Russia could be defeated by a series of battles which cumulatively would have a decisive effect, after which Germany could finish off France and Britain. The Tenth Army formed the northern attack force and was to attack eastwards into the Douai plain across a kilometre 9.
Preceded by a surprise bombardment lasting only 35 minutes, the initial assault made rapid progress and the village was captured within four hours.
The advance then slowed because of supply and communication difficulties. The Germans brought up reserves and counter-attackedforestalling the attempt to capture the ridge.
Since the British had used about one-third of their supply of artillery ammunitionGeneral Sir John French blamed the failure on the shortage of ammunitiondespite the early success.
Chemical weapons in World War I All sides had signed the Hague Conventions of andwhich prohibited the use of chemical weapons in warfare. Inthere had been small-scale attempts by both the French and Germans to use various tear gaseswhich were not strictly prohibited by the early treaties but which were also ineffective.
Though primarily a powerful irritant, it can asphyxiate in high concentrations or prolonged exposure. The Germans were unprepared for the level of their success and lacked sufficient reserves to exploit the opening.
Canadian troops on the right drew back their left flank and halted the German advance. Fickle winds and inexperience led to more British casualties from the gas than German. Countermeasures also improved and the stalemate continued.
Aircraft were already in use for scouting and on 1 April, the French pilot Roland Garros became the first to shoot down an enemy aircraft by using a machine-gun that shot forward through the propeller blades. This was achieved by crudely reinforcing the blades to deflect bullets.
His aeroplane was captured and sent to Dutch engineer Anthony Fokkerwho soon produced a significant improvement, the interrupter gearin which the machine gun is synchronised with the propeller so it fires in the intervals when the blades of the propeller are out of the line of fire.
This advance was quickly ushered into service, in the Fokker E. I Eindecker, or monoplane, Mark 1the first single seat fighter aircraft to combine a reasonable maximum speed with an effective armament.
Max Immelmann scored the first confirmed kill in an Eindecker on 1 August. It also inaugurated the cult of the acethe most famous being Manfred von Richthofen the Red Baron.
The map shown here is a section of a British Army Trench Map of the area east of Ypres on the Ypres Salient battlefields in Belgium. The scale is , Drawing on unpublished diaries, memoirs and letters, The Great War tells the rich and complex story of World War I through the voices of nurses, journalists, aviators and the American troops who. Selected Highlights. Countdown to War. Read a single page summary of the origins of the First World War - the tangled secret alliances, the royal feuds, the personalities and the seemingly inevitable series of events in June and July which culminated in the oubreak of hostilities spanning four years.
Contrary to the myth, anti-aircraft fire claimed more kills than fighters. German reinforcements counter-attacked and pushed the French back towards their starting points because French reserves had been held back and the success of the attack had come as a surprise.
By 15 May the advance had been stopped, although the fighting continued until 18 June. Rather than relying on a heavily fortified front line, the defence was to be arranged in a series of echelons. The front line would be a thinly manned series of outposts, reinforced by a series of strongpoints and a sheltered reserve.
If a slope was available, troops were deployed along the rear side for protection. The defence became fully integrated with command of artillery at the divisional level.Men at War National Sentiment and Trench Journalism in France during the First World War (The Legacy of the Great War). Take your students on a journey back in time to the trenches of World War I with out pfmlures.com video lesson.
Have students create models of World War I trenches, and consider related lessons and. - World War One Photos - shows Great War pictures in all its pfmlures.com remember that reality can never be resembled more effectively than in these pictures.
A detailed long-term archaeological, historical, technological and genealogical study to help promote multi-disciplinary international study of First World War sites, attract a new generation of battlefield archaeologists, and encourage the perpetual preservation of a unique segment of battlefield in the village of La Boisselle, Somme.
The evolution of reciprocal altruism between combatants during the Great War. The high command tried to stifle the tacit understanding between the British and German forces. The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World pfmlures.coming the outbreak of war in August , the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in pfmlures.com tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the pfmlures.coming the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in.