The Jewish population was then divided into some 3, Sephardim, concentrated mostly in southwestern France, and perhaps 30, Ashkenazim in eastern France. The leading families of the Sephardim engaged in international trade.
Gaul was overrun by Germanic tribes, in the north principally by the Franks who gave France its name and by the Visigoths and Merovingians in the south. But the Latin speech survived: While it retained relatively few Celtic words, the developing language had its vocabulary greatly enriched by Germanic borrowings, and its phonetic development was influenced by Germanic speech habits.
The 9th-century Norse incursions and settlement of Normandy, by contrast, left few traces in the language. The Romans had introduced written literature, and until the 12th century almost all documents and other texts were in Latin. A German version also survives. Only a few other texts, all religious in content, survive from before about Early texts show a broad division between the speech of northern Gaul, which had suffered most from the invasions, and that in the more stable, cultured south, where the Latin spoken was less subject to change.
From the last one stemmed Anglo-Norman, the French used alongside English in Britain, especially among the upper classes, from even before the Norman Conquest until well into the 14th century. Each dialect had its own literature.
But, for various reasons, the status of Francien increased until it achieved dominance in the Middle French period afterand from it Modern French developed. Old French was a fine literary medium, enlarging its vocabulary from other languages such as Arabic, Occitan, and Low Latin. It had a wide phonetic range and, until the decay of the two-case system it had inherited from Latin, syntactic flexibility.
The context and nature of French medieval literature Whatever Classical literature survived the upheavals of the early Middle Ages was preserved, along with pious Latin works, in monastic libraries.
By encouraging scholars and writers, Charlemagne had increased the Latin heritage available to educated vernacular authors of later centuries. He also left his image as a great warrior-emperor to stimulate the legend-making process that generated the Old French epic.
There one finds exemplified the feudal ideal, evolved by the Franks, that was the means of establishing a hierarchy of dependency and, thereby, a cohesiveness that would lead to a national identity.
As stability increased under the Capetianswindows opened onto other cultures and elements: The Roman Catholic church grew in wealth and power, and by the 12th century its schools were flourishing, training generations of clerks in the liberal arts.
Society itself became less embattled, and the nobility became more leisured and sophisticated. The machismo of the epics was tempered by the social graces of courtoisie: By the 13th century an additional source of patronage for writers and performers was the bourgeoisie of the developing towns.
New genres emerged, and, as literacy increased, prose found favour alongside verse. Much of the literature of the time is enlivened by a rather irreverent spirit and a sometimes cynical realism, yet it also possesses a countercurrent of deep spirituality.
In the 14th and 15th centuries France was ravaged by war, plague, and famine. Along with a preoccupation in literature with death and damnation, there appeared a contrasting refinement of expression and sentiment bred of nostalgia for the courtly, chivalric ideal.
At the same time a new humanistic learning anticipated the coming Renaissance. The jongleursprofessional minstrels, traveled and performed their extensive repertoireswhich ranged from epics to the lives of saints the lengthy romances were not designed for memorizationsometimes using mime and musical accompaniment.
Seeking an immediate impact, most poets made their poems strikingly visual in character, more dramatic than reflective, and revealed psychology and motives through action and gesture. Such oral techniques left their mark throughout the period. Most are anonymous and are composed in lines of 10 or 12 syllables, grouped into laisses strophes based on assonance and, later, rhyme.
Their length varies from about 1, to more than 18, lines. The genre prospered from the late 11th to the early 14th century, offering exemplary stories of warfare, often pitting Franks against Saracens, that fire the emotions with their insistent rhythms.
Under the influence of the genre known as romance, however see below The romancethe chansons de geste lost some of their early vigour. Their story lines became looser, their adventures more exotic, and their tone often amatory or even humorous.
Many were eventually turned into prose. Cycles formed as new songs were composed featuring heroes, families, or themes already familiar. The epics in the Geste de Doon de Mayence deal with rebellious vassals, among them Raoul de Cambrai, in a gripping story of injustice and strained loyalties.
The First Crusade is handled, with legendary embellishment, in a minor cycle.In the early hours of 31st January , 70, North Vietnamese soldiers, together with guerrilla fighters of the NLF, launched one of the most daring military campaigns in history.
The Tet Offensive was the real turning point in the Vietnam War.
On its. Georges Lefebvre's work The Coming of the French Revolution documents the collapse of the social order - and the monarchy - in France during the fateful year of Based around a Marxist understanding of class struggle, Lefebvre sees the revolution not just as a political crisis, but also as an assault on inherited privilege and the.
There is a worldwide conspiracy being orchestrated by an extremely powerful and influential group of genetically-related individuals (at least at the highest echelons) which include many of the world's wealthiest people, top political leaders, and corporate elite, as well as members of the so-called Black Nobility of Europe (dominated by the British Crown) whose goal is to create a One World.
Informed, Nuanced Analysis on Libya. Libya-Analysis® is a one-of-a-kind consultancy organisation with years of experience producing evidence-based analysis, forecasting and research on pfmlures.com help our clients make sense of the latest political, economic, commercial and security developments in Libya and provide both background information and real time insights into the complex dynamics.
The Egyptian revolution of , locally known as the January 25 Revolution (Egyptian Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير ; Thawret 25 yanāyir), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January and took place across all of pfmlures.com date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual Egyptian "police day" as a statement against increasing police brutality during.
French literature, the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of pfmlures.com French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the Roman occupation of western Europe..
Since the Middle Ages, France has enjoyed an exceptional position in European intellectual life.