Religio Religion from O. One possible interpretation traced to Ciceroconnects lego read, i. The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods. Augustinefollowing the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV,
Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list. There are adjectives with both positive and negative connotations which describe both ends of this spectrum.
From an academic, comparative religions viewpoint, there is no basis for "prescribing" whether it is better for a religion to be highly unified, cohesive, monolithic, and lacking in internal religious diversity, or whether it is better to be fragmented, schismatic, diverse, multifaceted and abounding in variations on the same theme.
In a practical sense, most people actually practice only one form of whatever religion they belong to. Buddhism, for example, if viewed as a whole, can be understood to have a large amount of internal variation, including the Theravada and Mahayana branches, all of their sub-schools, various revivalist sects, as well as Tibetan and modern Western forms.
But most actual Buddhists are not actually involved in all of these; rather they practice one, internally cohesive, fairly unified form, such as the Geluk order of Tibetan Buddhism, or Japanese Amida-Buddha worship. How is classification done for official government figures? It is important to note that data for the size of various religions within a given country often come from government census figures or official estimates.
Such governmental endeavors are interested primarily in physical population demographics, such as how many people live in a household and how many telephones there are per person.
These studies are not theological treatises. They merely classify Hindus as all people who call themselves Hindu, Muslims as all people who call themselves Muslim, Christians as all people who call themselves Christian.
From a sociological and historical perspective, most religions have arisen from within existing religious frameworks: For the purposes of defining a religion we need to have some cutoff point. Should Sikhism be listed as a Hindu sect as in many older textbooksor a world religion in its own right?
To manage this question we have chosen once again to use the most commonly-recognized divisions in comparative religion texts. These definitions are primarily sociological and historical, NOT doctrinal or theological in nature.
We recognize that within many religious traditions there are deeply felt arguments for excluding certain groups from their description of their religion.
For example, councils of Muslim leaders have voted to no longer accept Ahmadis as valid Muslims, although Ahmadis consider themselves orthodox Muslims.
Many Evangelical Protestants churches exclude all non-Evangelical or non-Protestant groups from their definitions of Christianity. On the other hand, some Hindu writers are so inclusive that they claim as Hindus adherents of any religion that arose in a Hindu environment, including Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
These definitions are theological in nature and of little use in this statistical context. Groups such as Rastafarians, Mandeans, Tenrikyo, and the Church of Scientology are too small, too new or too unimportant in world history to be included in most surveys of "major world religions.
Where classification is unclear, we've used two criteria: Does the faith group consider itself to be part of or the definitive version of a larger religion? Does the larger religion consider the faith group to be part of its tradition?
If the answer to both of these questions is no, then the faith group is probably a distinct religion. If the answer to both questions is yes, the faith group is a division within the larger religion and thus not a world religion, but a division of a world religion.
If the answer to only one of the questions is yes, there is a judgment call to be made, but of course we give more weight to a group's self-concept. For example, Tenrikyo arose in the s in Japan in a Shinto context. The founder explained that her new revelations came from various Shinto kami gods.
Thus, Tenrikyo was classified by the Japanese ministry of religion as a Shinto sect for about one hundred years.
Then the leaders of Tenrikyo asked that the faith no longer be classified as a Shinto faith. Outsiders would agree that Tenrikyo has emerged as something identifiably distinct from traditional Shinto religion, although many world religion writers include Tenrikyo in chapters on Shinto or Japanese religion for simplicity's sake.
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It is a symbol alternately vilified, ridiculed and idealised by differing sectors of society and is a powerful symbol in Western mythology. Arabic Course Descriptions. Two one-hour language laboratory periods weekly are required in each four-hour course, one of which is a concurrent lab class enrollment.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.
Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from. Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate pfmlures.com the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity, or a deified pfmlures.com generally, prayer can also have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, and in comparative religion is closely associated.
Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.