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Tips and ideas from Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on teaching the present perfect aspect. Introduction When teaching the present perfect, or explaining the present perfect, it is often easiest to focus on the use of the present perfect rather than the meaning.
This is especially true for the first time students encounter it usually associated with the use of talking about experiences. However, sooner or later you will be looking at different uses of the present perfect, and more often than not its relation with the past tense.
This is where things often get tricky, partly because of the potentially misleading word present in present perfect.
Doing this, rather than the other way around will make explanations of the uses of the present perfect easier. An easy way of explaining perfect is to use the word before.
But since the past simple is also technically before the present, this does not cover all the uses of the perfect aspect. Another technical term is in retrospect, for which looking back is easier.
So the present perfect is before the present, or looking back from the present. Group the questions around a particular theme. Here are some examples: Cinema experiences Have you ever met a movie star? Have you cried at the cinema? Have you left the cinema before the movie ended?
Digital experiences Have you ever taken part in a video conference? Have you ever had a computer virus? Have you ever bought anything on the internet? Health experiences Have you ever spent a night in hospital?
Have you ever broken a bone? Have you ever had an operation? School experiences Have you ever cheated on an exam? Have you ever played truant? Have you ever copied homework from someone else? These can be done by students in pairs, or organised into a larger survey, with students having different questions and reporting back their findings.
In either case, students can be encouraged to ask follow-up questions what, when, where, why which will prompt the switch from present perfect to past simple.
That tricky use of the present perfect to talk about an action that happened in the past but that has relevance now can be practised with a variety of drills. Write the following on the board.
Tell the students they must respond to one of your prompts with an expression from the board. Call on individual students and ask questions which will elicit one of the answers.
Why are you sitting there doing nothing? You can make your own questions and answers like this, or you can just make the questions and challenge the students to come up with their own perhaps more creative answers beginning with the sentence stem: The choice of the words for and since are often confused by students when using the present perfect.
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A game can be made out of these choices.Here are our top five tips for writing a business school admissions essay: State specific reasons as to why you are a good “fit” for the school, rather than simply stating “I am the ideal candidate for your program.” Why are you the ideal candidate?
Use real life examples in your essay. This will help to bring your essay to life. Hello Ethan, This use of the past tense for politeness is typically used with specific expressions and verbs for making a request.
'I hope you are doing well' is not a request and so it is actually just fine (and polite) the way it is -- there is no need to use the past tense here.
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