AnthropologyHuman evolutionand Timeline of human evolution The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids great apes branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or specifically to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia ,—60, years ago,   Australia around 40, years ago, the Americas around 15, years ago, and remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter IslandMadagascarand New Zealand between the years and The gibbons family Hylobatidae and orangutans genus Pongo were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas genus Gorilla followed by the chimpanzees genus Pan. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4—8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.
According to Watson, caring is central to nursing practice, and promotes health better than a simple medical cure.
The nursing model also states that caring can be demonstrated and practiced by nurses. Caring for patients promotes growth; a caring environment accepts a person as he or she is, and looks to what he or she may become. Society Society provides the values that determine how one should behave and what goals one should strive toward.
Every society has had some people who have cared for others. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation by genes. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.
Human is viewed as greater than and different from the sum of his or her parts. Health Health is the unity and harmony within the mind, body, and soul; health is associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced.
It is defined as a high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning; and the absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness. Nursing Nursing is a human science of persons and human health — illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions.
Actual Caring Occasion Actual caring occasion involves actions and choices by the nurse and the individual. The moment of coming together in a caring occasion presents the two persons with the opportunity to decide how to be in the relationship — what to do with the moment.
Transpersonal The transpersonal concept is an intersubjective human-to-human relationship in which the nurse affects and is affected by the person of the other.
Both are fully present in the moment and feel a union with the other; they share a phenomenal field that becomes part of the life story of both.
Time The present is more subjectively real and the past is more objectively real. The past is prior to, or in a different mode of being than the present, but it is not clearly distinguishable. Past, present, and future incidents merge and fuse. As carative factors evolved within an expanding perspective, and as her ideas and values evolved, Watson offered a translation of the original carative factors into clinical caritas processes that suggested open ways in which they could be considered.
The ten primary carative factors with their corresponding translation into clinical caritas processes are listed in the table below. Lower Order Psychophysical Needs or Functional Needs Next in line are the lower-order psychophysical needs or functional needs. Higher Order Psychosocial Needs or Integrative Needs The higher order psychosocial needs or integrative needs include the need for achievement, and affiliation.
Higher Order Intrapersonal-Interpersonal Need or Growth-seeking Need The higher order intrapersonal-interpersonal need or growth-seeking need is the need for self-actualization.Norman Garmezy, a developmental psychologist and clinician at the University of Minnesota, met thousands of children in his four decades of research.
Dr. Jean Watson, Theory of Human Caring/Caring Science Dr. Watson's work is built around being heart-centered and authentically present, in the moment, in the work we do, which ultimately is a process of being and becoming. Character Traits Developing positive character traits among youth is vital in today's society.
Character Education should be infused into the climate and daily routine of schools. Concepts of Caring and Caring as a Concept. caring as a human trait; caring as a moral imperative; caring as an affect; caring as an interpersonal interaction; and caring as an intervention. Primary Personality Traits.
Positive Traits ( = 37%) Accessible; Active; Adaptable; Admirable; Adventurous; Agreeable; Alert; Allocentric; Amiable; Anticipative. of Effective, Caring Leaders. Larry C. Spears. Although this is a part of being human, Servant leadership, like stewardship, assumes first and foremost a commitment to serving the needs of others.
It also emphasizes the .