China in 19th century essay

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China in 19th century essay

China in 19th century essay

The victory enabled Portugal to implement its strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean. Early in the 16th century Afonso de Albuquerque left emerged as the Portuguese colonial viceroy most instrumental in consolidating Portugal's holdings in Africa and in Asia. He understood that Portugal could wrest commercial supremacy from the Arabs only by force, and therefore devised a plan to establish forts at strategic sites which would dominate the trade routes and also protect Portuguese interests on land.

Inhe conquered Goa in India, which enabled him to gradually consolidate control of most of the commercial traffic between Europe and Asia, largely through trade; Europeans started to carry on trade from forts, acting as foreign merchants rather than as settlers.

In contrast, early European expansion in the " West Indies ", later known to Europeans as a separate continent from Asia that they would call the " Americas " following the voyage of Christopher ColumbusChina in 19th century essay heavy settlement in colonies that were treated as political extensions of the mother countries.

Lured by the potential of high profits from another expedition, the Portuguese established a permanent base in Cochinsouth of the Indian trade port of Calicut in the early 16th century.

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Inthe Portuguese, led by Afonso de Albuquerqueseized Goa on the coast of India, which Portugal held untilalong with Diu and Daman the remaining territory and enclaves in India from a former network of coastal towns and smaller fortified trading ports added and abandoned or lost centuries before.

The Portuguese soon acquired a monopoly over trade in the Indian Ocean. Portuguese viceroy Albuquerque — resolved to consolidate Portuguese holdings in Africa and Asia, and secure control of trade with the East Indies and China. His first objective was Malaccawhich controlled the narrow strait through which most Far Eastern trade moved.

Years later the first trading posts were established in the Moluccasor "Spice Islands", which was the source for some of the world's most hotly demanded spices, and from there, in Makassar and some others, but smaller, in the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Bythe first Portuguese ships had reached Canton on the southern coasts of China. Shortly after, other fortified bases and forts were annexed and built along the Gulf, and inthrough a military campaign, the Portuguese annexed Bahrain.

The Portuguese conquest of Malacca triggered the Malayan—Portuguese war. The Portuguese tried to establish trade with China by illegally smuggling with the pirates on the offshore islands[ which? InChina decided to lease Macau to the Portuguese as a place where they could dry goods they transported on their ships, which they held until The Portuguese, based at Goa and Malacca, had now established a lucrative maritime empire in the Indian Ocean meant to monopolise the spice trade.

The Portuguese also began a channel of trade with the Japanese, becoming the first recorded Westerners to have visited Japan. This contact introduced Christianity and fire-arms into Japan.

The Portuguese founded a fort at the city of Colombo in and gradually extended their control over the coastal areas and inland. The invasion was a disaster for the Portuguese, with their entire army wiped out by Kandyan guerilla warfare. He died in the Battle of Randeniwelarefusing to abandon his troops in the face of total annihilation.

After the discovery of the return voyage to the Americas by Andres de Urdaneta incargoes of Chinese goods were transported from the Philippines to Mexico and from there to Spain. By this long route, Spain reaped some of the profits of Far Eastern commerce.

Spanish officials converted the islands to Christianity and established some settlements, permanently establishing the Philippines as the area of East Asia most oriented toward the West in terms of culture and commerce.

Decline of Portugal's Asian empire since the 17th century[ edit ] The lucrative trade was vastly expanded when the Portuguese began to export slaves from Africa in ; however, over time, the rise of the slave trade left Portugal over-extended, and vulnerable to competition from other Western European powers.

Envious of Portugal's control of trade routes, other Western European nations—mainly the NetherlandsFrance, and England—began to send in rival expeditions to Asia. Inthe Dutch drove the Portuguese out of the Gold Coast in Africa, the source of the bulk of Portuguese slave labourers, leaving this rich slaving area to other Europeans, especially the Dutch and the English.

Rival European powers began to make inroads in Asia as the Portuguese and Spanish trade in the Indian Ocean declined primarily because they had become hugely over-stretched financially due to the limitations on their investment capacity and contemporary naval technology.

Both of these factors worked in tandem, making control over Indian Ocean trade extremely expensive.

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The existing Portuguese interests in Asia proved sufficient to finance further colonial expansion and entrenchment in areas regarded as of greater strategic importance in Africa and Brazil. Portuguese maritime supremacy was lost to the Dutch in the 17th century, and with this came serious challenges for the Portuguese.

However, they still clung to Macau, and settled a new colony on the island of Timor. It was as recent as the s and s that the Portuguese began to relinquish their colonies in Asia.

Goa was invaded by India in and became an Indian state in ; Portuguese Timor was abandoned in and was then invaded by Indonesia.Question Explain what Zewei’s article (mentioned below) from the week 4 reading was all about. Be sure to identify the thesis and pfmlures.com://pfmlures.com  · Western imperialism in Asia as presented in this article pertains to Western European entry into what was first called the East Indies.

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This was sparked early in the 15th century by the search for trade routes to China that led directly to the Age of Discovery, and the introduction of early modern warfare into what was then called the Far pfmlures.com European exploration of Asia · Dutch trade and colonization in Asiapfmlures.com Reform Movements of the 19th Century History Section April 11, Reform Movements of the 19th Century During the 19th century, there were many changes in America.

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