Among graduate students and professionals, the estimates were 8. Because of vulnerability associated with being a minority, LGBTQ people are more likely to experience sexual violence than their heterosexual peers. Their psychological model states that men who display hostile masculinity traits e. Their findings have been replicated in college student samples and non-student adult samples Malamuth et al.
The model by the Sheffield Alcohol Research Group SARGwhich analyses how consumers respond to price changes, estimates how those in different income brackets and socioeconomic groups would change their drinking habits and spending if a minimum price for alcohol of 45p per unit was implemented.
The study published today in The Lancet is the first to consider how drinkers from different income groups would be affected by minimum pricing in terms of alcohol consumption and spending, alcohol-related deaths, illnesses, and costs to the health service. The results show that minimum pricing would have the most pronounced effects on the five per cent of the population whose drinking is classified as harmful more than 50 units per week for men, and more than 35 units per week for women.
Three quarters of the total reduction in alcohol consumption resulting from minimum pricing would occur in harmful drinkers, with a predicted total reduction in alcohol-related deaths of per year and hospital admissions by per year .
Harmful drinkers on the lowest incomes bottom 20 per cent would be most affected by minimum pricing, say the researchers. These low income harmful drinkers are projected to reduce their alcohol consumption by nearly units per year under minimum pricing.
This is also the group at greatest risk of health harm from alcohol, and estimated reductions in mortality due to minimum pricing are therefore much greater for lower income harmful drinkers than for any other group.
In contrast, the effects on moderate drinkers would be very small. Moderate drinkers in the lowest income group buy on average less than one unit of alcohol per week below the 45p threshold.
Policy makers need to balance larger reductions in consumption by harmful drinkers on a low income against the large health gains that could be experienced in this group from reductions in alcohol-related illness and death.
Instead, minimum unit pricing is a policy that is targeted at those who consume large quantities of cheap alcohol. As many alcohol-related diseases take several years to develop, it is necessary to account for lagging effects over this 10 year period to estimate the full effect of the policy. To view the full paper visit: Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in.
Sheffield has five Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields.
Contact For further information please contact:Minimum pricing for alcohol of 45p per unit  would reduce deaths and hospital admissions among high risk drinkers who purchase large quantities of low cost alcohol, but would have negligible effects on low income moderate drinkers’ alcohol consumption and spending, according to a new modelling.
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