He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress". The abstract noun "civilization", meaning "civilized condition", came in the s, again from French. The first known use in French is inby Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeauand the first use in English is attributed to Adam Fergusonwho in his Essay on the History of Civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilisation". In the late s and early s, during the French Revolution"civilization" was used in the singularnever in the plural, and meant the progress of humanity as a whole.
Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians.
Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily.
Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience would make the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the Roman Republic. Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed.
Among the reasons for the Second Punic War  was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War. The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War.
At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate.
Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Catowho after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city.
However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianuswho entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa. Thus ended the Punic War period.
At this time Rome was a consolidated empire — in the military view — and had no major enemies. Gaius Mariusa Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence.
The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians.
Marius then started his military reform: At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchusson-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over.
As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him.The World before BCE. home | BCE to CE | 6thth centuries | th centuries | th centuries. Billions of Years – from the earth's beginning to human species.
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Considers how a text generates aesthetic pleasure, how it achieves moral or social impact. Develops skills in literary analysis through reading literary texts, through.
Free essay example on Ancient Civilizations: Two Ancient Civilizations, the Greek and the Roman, have profoundly influenced the modern cultures that we are part of pfmlures.com, otherwise known as the birthplace of Western civilization, had a great time span starting from the Early Bronze Age of BC all the way to the Hellenistic period up to about .
Plato’s Influence on Western Civilization - Our country is built on a set of values derived from ancient civilizations, individuals, and city-states; both negative and positive attributes of these relics can be proven to have assisted in molding our government into a unique and prized entity.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The term is sometimes used to refer only to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire. The World before BCE. home | BCE to CE | 6thth centuries | th centuries | th centuries. Billions of Years – from the earth's beginning to human species.
Dinosaurs, Birds, and Change – a focus on the Triasic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Genes, Aging and Evolution – creature biologies. Biology, the Brain and History – distribution of differences among humans.