Making A level psychology easier Bowlby's evolutionary theory of attachment Attachment is innate There is a critical period for attachment formation Infant attachment styles predict adult relationship styles Attachments are formed as a monotropy and hierarchy Evolutionary theory explains attachment is an innate behaviour that has evolved over millions of years because it increases chances of survival Attachment is innate Bowlby proposed that millions of years of evolution had produced a behaviour that is essential to the survival chances of human infants. Humans are born helpless and totally dependent on the actions of a caregiver for food, warmth, shelter and safety for their well being and survival. If babies did not behave in a way that made it more likely an adult would care for them, and if adults did not become attached to babies, then human infants would not survive to reproductive age. Therefore natural selection has passed on genes that lead to attachment forming behaviours.
When writing 12 mark essays make sure you remember the following things: Try to make the outline part of the essay around the same length as the evaluate part - an unbalanced essay can lose you marks! Use a strength and a weakness to make sure your argument is balanced and not biased.
Plan your answer in the space they give you before you actually write it - the content is not the only important aspect, structure will gain you marks too. The strange situation was used to see how infants react under stressful situations such as separation from the caregiver causing separation anxiety and also the presence of a stranger stranger anxiety.
Observers watched the behaviours displayed between the infants and caregiver from behind one way mirrors and collected data every 15 seconds on various different criteria, they also measured the intensity of the behaviour on a scale of Some of the behaviours included the parent leaving the room, and stranger being presented and the parent returning.
The data was then collected from several studies and the results combined to make a total of middle-class infants that were observed. A study conducted by Main and Weston concluded that infants behave differently depending on which parent they are with. However it could be argued that the only relationship that matters is that of your primary caregiver which is the parent that partakes in the strange situation and the attachment with this primary caregiver determines the overall attachment type of the infant.
It was also found that the strange situation was very reliable because the results of the observers were consistent with one and other and there was almost a perfect inter-observer agreement 0.
This increases the validity of the strange situation as a way of measuring attachment type and means that the results can be generalised and applied to similar situations. Outline and evaluate the learning theory of attachment 12 marks outline The learning theory of attachment focuses of two concepts; operant and classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning as an explanation for attachment describes the baby receiving food and unconditioned stimulus and producing an unconditioned response happiness and the mother feeding the baby will be the neutral stimulus. The baby will then experience the mother giving them food and therefore happiness a number of times and then learn to associate the mother now a conditioned stimulus with the feeling of happiness a conditioned response and thus an attachment will form.
Operant conditioning describes attachment as a reinforced response. The person feeding the baby will also be associated with the happiness and therefore become the secondary reinforcer and an attachment will form.
However, the monkey study was conducted on monkeys and it could be argued that this is not an accurate representation of human attachment.
Humans are a lot more complex than animals and so therefore research on animals to study behaviour cannot be applied to human behaviour.Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment (12 marks) Bowlby was an evolutionary Psychologist who believed that attachment is a part of evolutionary behaviour and focus on an animal’s instinctive and innate .
Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. (12mark) Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which . Mai Yongsakul Psychology: ATTACHMENT Friday 1st October pfmlures.com OUTLINE & EVALUATION OF BOWLBY'S THEORY John Bowlb.
Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s ‘Maternal Deprivation’ hypothesis Bowlby’s first hypothesis relating to the attachment model was his ‘maternal deprivation’ hypothesis (MDH). This hypothesis was the forerunner of the full attachment theory, and was proposed by Bowlby twenty years earlier, in Home > A Level and IB > Psychology > Outline and Evaluate Bowlby's Theory of Attachments- Essay Outline and Evaluate Bowlby's Theory of Attachments- Essay / 5.
May 18, · AS Psychology - A Grade Essay Answers. Updated on May 18, Anthropophobia. more. Outline and evaluate the learning theory of attachment (12 marks) (outline) The learning theory of attachment focuses of two concepts; operant and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning as an explanation for attachment Reviews: 4.