Theories of perception and perception in the workplace

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Theories of perception and perception in the workplace

Process theories of motivation Personal needs drive behaviour Process theories of motivation are about a cognitive rational process and concentrate on the psychological and behavioural processes that motivate an individual. Put simply, this is all about how people's needs influence and drive their behaviour.

People need to see what is in it for them and to sense that "fair play" is being exercised to all concerned.

Clearly a basic understanding of this is foundational to the psychological underpinning of successful change management and the strategies for managing change that will deliver that.

These process theories of motivation also totally support and underpin the findings and practical observations of Goleman, Katzenbach, Pearson, Axelrod and others referred to in Inspirational Motivation and the research and thought leadership highlighted in Leading Change.

The two main process theories of motivation are Expectancy Theory and Equity Theory.

theory predicts that employees pursue a balance between their invest- ments in and the rewards gained from their work, such that their own investment/reward ratio is the same as that of similar others. Perception is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. Learn the definition of perception, how it is related to the five senses, how it differs from reality, and more. The following links, while perhaps exhausting, are not exhaustive, but most of the stuff on the Web about personality disorders is about Borderline and most of the stuff on NPD is no more than repetitions of the DSM-IV criteria. abstracts of research articles on NPD Narcissistic Personality Disorder "Narcissistic Personality: A Stable Disorder or a State of Mind?".

Expectancy theory [also called Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory or VIE Theory] is associated with Vroom, Porter and Lawler and it suggests that effort a is linked to the desire for a particular outcome, and b moderated by an evaluation of the likelihood of success.

Expectancy Theory This is a pragmatic perspective that assumes that as we are constantly trying to predict potential future outcomes, we attempt to create what we perceive to be as realistic expectations about future events.

Thus if things look reasonably likely and attractive, and if we know what to do in order to get there, and we believe we can actually do it, then this will motivate us to act to make this future come true.

According to Victor Vroom, individual motivation depends on three variables, namely: Force, Valence and Expectancy. M] What's in it for me?

The value of the anticipated outcome Instrumentality: The belief that if I complete certain actions then I will achieve the outcome.

Confidence in my capability i. The belief that I am able to complete the actions. The conclusions that can be drawn from this theory are: It has to be exercised with ability and skill 3 Job satisfaction is derived from effective job performance and not the other way round 4 Job design is therefore of crucial importance Process theories of motivation - Adam's Equity Theory At a basic level, most people generally prefer to be in relationships where give and take are about equal.

Process theories of motivation

So if one person is getting too little from the relationship, then clearly they are going to be unhappy with this but it is also likely that the other person will also be feeling rather guilty about this imbalance.

This is reinforced by strong social norms about fairness. Equity Theory Equity theory states that in return for an input of skills, effort or production, the employee receives an outcome expressed in terms of any combination of salary, status and fringe benefits. This creates a ratio of input to outcome and equity is achieved when the ratios are the same for everyone in organisation.

When individuals believe that they have been treated unfairly in comparison with their coworkers, they will react in one of four ways: Practical Application of Process Theories of Motivation to change leadership and management Unlike the other theories of motivation that we have discussed on this site, process theories of motivation are to do with motivation that is rational and cognitive rather than emotional.

In simple practical terms, these theories show the change leader that you have to appeal to people's heads as well as their hearts. People need to have the WIFM [what's in it for me] question answered. They need to see the steps and they need to believe that they can do it and that they want to.

Theories of perception and perception in the workplace

They also need to believe in the equity or fairness of what you tell you.The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation can be broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort.

Miscellaneous Sites. ACT Research Home Page- The ACT group is led by John Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University and is concerned with the ACT theory and architecture of pfmlures.com goal of this research is to understand how people acquire and organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior.

David Kolb's learning styles model, and more free online materials for organizational and personal development, and free business training tools, tips and guides. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND ADMINISTRATION VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1, 1 Self-Efficacy in the Workplace: Implications for Motivation and Performance.

Perception is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. Learn the definition of perception, how it is related to the five senses, how it differs from reality, and more. A paper published by the American Review of Public Administration introduced the concept of perceived public service efficacy to describe the way an employee's perception of his work can affect work motivation and organizational behavior.

Manage perceptions in the workplace | The Business Times